Stigmatizing Taxes: Anti-Tax Advocates as Norm Entrepreneurs: Adam Harmes (University of Western Ontario) Abstract: Recent work in International Relations has examined the use of stigma techniques by norm entrepreneurs and the role that stigmatization can play in the creation of international norms. This paper seeks to build on this research by examining the work of anti-tax advocacy groups and their efforts to stigmatize new taxes and tax increases. Drawing on 2018 interviews in the UK, US and Canada, the paper examines the following questions in the context of the Anglo-American countries: To what extent do the norms surrounding new taxes and tax increases meet the criteria of a stigma? How have the stigmatization techniques of anti-tax advocates evolved over time and what can they add to the literature on norm entrepreneurs? What insights can the various literatures - in IR, sociology and business management - on stigma management and de-stigmatization, provide to governments on how to raise taxes when necessary? To what extent have more pro-tax advocacy groups acted as norm antipreneurs by employing techniques of de-stigmatization? Therefore, in addition to examining the specific case of an anti-tax norm, this paper seeks to contribute to the broader norms literature through a detailed operationalization of the specific tactics and techniques of stigmatization, counter-stigmatization, stigma management and de-stigmatization.
Social Acceleration and the Temporalities of Work and Leisure, an Exploration.: Jonathan Martineau (Bishop's University) Abstract: This communication seeks to provide background reflections on key coordinates of leisure, work and culture in the context of dynamics pertaining to the contemporary
global time regime. Of specific interest here is the question of the articulation between leisure time and markets. This communication examines the exacerbated dominance of market temporalities on social relations brought about and reproduced by key neoliberal processes which have led to a restructuring of the work time/leisure time binary that held for most of the modern period. The communication also critically engages with some aspects of the theory of social acceleration and examines how it can shed light on, and in turn be modified by, an analysis of the relationship between leisure and market temporalities in the current context.
The Division of Nonprofit Labour: What Can the Revenue Mix of a Charity Tell Us About its Functions?: Kristen Pue (University of Toronto) Abstract: Research has pointed to a “nonprofitization” of the welfare state, in which governments fund nonprofit delivery of social welfare services (i.e. Smith and Lipsky 1990; Salamon 2015). Canada is no exception to this phenomenon: government funding was 66% of Canadian charitable sector revenue in 2015, up from 52% in 1990. While the role of nonprofits in the welfare state has garnered attention recently, and while researchers point to the influence of financial contexts on nonprofit functions, there has been no analysis to-date seeking to understand whether there are systematic associations between the revenue mixes of charities and their roles in public policy. This paper seeks to address that gap. First, it provides a theoretical sketch of ideal-type revenue mixes and their association to the position of charities in policy. Then it tests the application of these categories to the population of Canadian immigrant aid charities. Finally, it discusses the relevance of these findings for research on social policy and nonprofit advocacy.
Mapping the Innovation Policy Preferences of Canadian ICT Firms: Travis Southin (University of Toronto) Abstract: Innovation policy has gained increased salience as a key feature of the Trudeau Government’s approach to economic policy. Historically, Canadian political economists have emphasized the significant influence of private sector policy preferences in underpinning Canada’s reliance on supply-side, indirect, and non-targeted innovation policies, such as research and development tax credits. These preferences were informed by Canadian industry’s technologically dependent, branch-plant status within American-dominated supply chains. Rapid changes have occurred in the innovation policy subsystem since these seminal studies, such as the growth of homegrown Information Communication Technology (ICT) firms. Little is known about how the innovation policy preferences of this new generation of domestic technology firms compares with research on the preferences of private sector actors from previous eras. To address this gap, this paper performs a qualitative mapping of the policy preferences of 44 domestic ‘scale-up’ firms, drawing on semi-structured interviews conducted between April 2018 and April 2019 with members of the Council of Canadian Innovators. These interviews provide a window into the innovation policy preferences of Canadian scale-ups who are actively engaged in Canada’s innovation policy process. Results reveal that these firms prefer demand-side, direct, and targeted instruments more often than expected given the literature’s depiction of historic business interests as preferring supply-side, indirect, and neutral innovation policies. This paper’s contribution to developing a more nuanced view of the innovation policy preferences of Canada’s private sector is particularly relevant given the federal government’s renewed commitment to changing Canada’s innovation policy.