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Political Economy

G12 - Regulatory Regimes

Date: Jun 5 | Time: 02:00pm to 03:30pm | Location: SWING 408

Chair/Président/Présidente : Angela Carter (University of Waterloo)

Discussant/Commentateur/Commentatrice : John Ravenhill (University of Waterloo)

Socialisation, State Capacity and the Limitations of the Global Anti-Money Laundering and Counterterrorist Financing Regime: Roland Vogt (University of Hong Kong)
Abstract: This paper examines recent innovations in the global regulatory regime against money laundering and counterterrorist financing (AML-CFT), such as those included in the European Union's fifth AML-CFT directive. Rather than concentrating on the legal and technical changes in the AML-CFT regime, it analyses the growing dichotomy between ever more comprehensive and stringent provisions of AML-CFT regulation on the one hand and the enforcement ability of states on the other. On the basis of a comparative methodology that uses recent evidence from jurisdictions in Europe and East Asia, the paper finds that the AML-CFT regime is undercut not by sovereignty or a lack of coherent international regulatory instruments (as is suggested in much of the literature) but by the lack of critical distance between regulators, financial actors, and non-financial intermediaries. Surprisingly, this is not only the case in smaller jurisdictions where one would expect familiarity among actors to be an obstacle for a more muscular enforcement of AFL-CFT provisions. Even large economies, such as Germany and other advanced industrialised economies, suffer from significant limitations in terms of enforcement capacity. The paper makes a timely and significant contribution by highlighting how the socialisation of actors involved in enforcing AFL-CFT regulations shapes the practices of rule enforcement.

The Political Economy of Japanese Trade Policy: The Trans-Pacific Partnership Reconsidered: Jemma Kim (Meiji University)
Abstract: This article looks at new policy shifts in Japan with regard to the TPP. Japan has shifted away from WTO-based multilateralism towards a bilateralism focused on free trade agreements (FTAs). Notwithstanding this, more recent Japanese FTA policies can be described in terms of a new trend away from bilateral agreements towards a “regional multilateralism.” While in government, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) announced its intention to join the TPP, shifting its focus away from conventional bilateral agreements. This has been continued by the current administration under Abe, which has formally entered into TPP negotiations. Japanese trade policy thus appears to have developed a double-layered structure, moving from bilateral FTAs towards multiparty FTAs. Why has this occurred? Will the growing number of FTAs, and now the TPP, turn out to be a stepping stone or stumbling block towards regional economic integration? What are the implications of Japanese participation in the TPP for regional governance in East Asia? While existing studies have treated FTAs as the policy norms and basic premise of Japanese trade policy, this paper offers an alternative explanation of Japan’s TPP policymaking process, mainly focusing on the institutional problem such as the lack of communication channel between governments and interest groups.

Political Determinants of Cancer: Andrew Patterson (MacEwan University)
Abstract: A growing literature depicts the political environment as a determinant of population health. This literature is often unclear about the role that the macro-economic context plays in creating population health. While toxins in the environment clearly have consequences for health, relatively less scholarship has traced the lineage of those toxins to the political-industrial complex that presumably manufactures them. This paper attempts to map out that lineage, particularly as it relates to one of the deadliest maladies of advanced (and increasingly, developing) economies: cancer. Included is a summary of the literature that speaks to connections between cancer rates and both politics and the economy. The paper articulates the role of regulatory regimes including but not limited to laissez-faire policy agendas. Featured is a discussion of toxins as they apply most prominently to human contexts: the food supply chain and the physical environment. Included also is the proposal of a 'counting principle', i.e., that the number of links in supply chains (e.g., ingredients in food) is proportional to the amount of risk to the consumer. These mechanisms in turn are related to the political arena. Lastly, a selection of political variables is discussed in terms of their potential to influence regulatory regimes, the economy-at-large, and other mechanisms that may affect cancer rates. For the proposed modeling framework that characterizes politics as a determinant of cancer, limitations and implications are discussed.